the Red Queen, a Mayan woman of noble lineage returned

The human remains of the Red Queen, a Mayan woman of noble lineage found in 1994, returned to the ancient Mayan city of Palenque in southern Mexico,

after spending 18 years in the capital country subject to detailed studies of physical anthropology, officials said.

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English: National Museum of Anthropolgy in Mex...

English: National Museum of Anthropolgy in Mexico City. Funerary mask of king Pakal of Palenque Deutsch: National Museum of Anthropolgy in Mexico City. Grabmaske des Königs Pakal von Palenque (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) explained in a statement that the woman, who was believed to be Tzakbu Ajawm, the wife of Pakal II, ruler of Palenque between 615 and 684 AD, was returned to Palenque in the company of the other two bodies, slaughtered and buried next to her.

These correspond to a woman between 20 and 30, and a child who was between 7 and 12 years at the time of his death and burial, which occurred in 672.

The INAH has a policy of keeping at the site all the materials found so that no collections can be dispersed to other museums.

On June 15 the remains, were carefully placed in seven boxes, and were returned to Palenque “in the holds of receipt” of the archaeological zone in an area where humidity and temperature are controlled.

The statement specifies that for the moment “is not the Red Queen may return to his burial chamber, inside the Temple XIII, due to excess moisture making the building” located next to the Temple of the Inscriptions.

The INAH noted that “the last physical anthropology studies determined that the remains of the Red Queen could correspond to the wife of the Mayan ruler Pakal II, and his mother, as was believed during the early years of the discovery of his tomb” .

Genetic studies performed DNA “confirmed that there was no relationship between the Red Queen and Pakal II”, who was ruler of Palenque.

The Red Queen had a high status and should play a key role within the royal lineage, as presumed from its discovery in 1994 in the so-called Temple of the Inscriptions, where he found the tomb of King Pakal.

The name comes from the Red Queen malachite mask covering his skull was covered by a layer of cinnabar, a red mineral, three inches thick.

The woman must be between 40 and 45, measured five feet, and was suffering from osteoporosis, according to studies that were performed.

The city of Palenque, located in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, near Tabasco, has a crucial role in the study of history and religion of the Mayas by the value of the archaeological remains found in it.

Tulum explored in a “underwater cave” from the ice age

In the underwater cave are the remains of animals 10,000 years ago and even traces of fires

Tulum explored in a "hole" in the ice age

Tulum explored in a “hole” in the ice age

 The site of the remains is a deep well of dimensions rarely seen, whose age could be increased to 10 thousand years.

A new site located in the underground caverns of Tulum, which will contribute to science and the world new evidence on human and animal life for the Ice Age in America, is about to be released, ahead of its discoverer, Alejandro Alvarez , director of Project Speleological Tulum .

The finding was recorded on May 10, 2007 but was reported by Alvarez and his team in 2009 the authorities of the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH).

The place was called “The Black Hole” and could be the largest flooded cave found in the Tulum area, where they have found sites like Naharon, Temple, Las Palmas, The Pitt and Hol Chan, among others.

In an interview with El Universal , the expert diver explains the relevance of “The Black Hole” or “The Death Trap” lies not only in size and age-perhaps more than 10 thousand years, but there were found both bones of people and animals.

“The Black Hole is the largest find so far recorded in the area. Its size is impressive. The importance of the site is that besides humans, no context of animals, plants, human activities such as bonfires” , says the diver, who adds that is the finding of his life.

He also founded the BUCEMA, an association of divers trying to improve their ethical behavior through training and also impact the regulation and safety of these underwater explorers, little access to disclose details of the new finding.

However, Alvarez stressed that the experience earned him a moment “indescribable” .

According to his brief description, “The Black Hole” is a deep well of dimensions rarely seen. So far four of the five skeletons have been discovered have been shallow, this site would be the deepest.

Alvarez, along with Atollini Franco and Alberto Nava -members-caving project has monitored river systems of the world’s largest underground, which were released in 2007 and called Aktun Hu, Nohoch Nachich, Sac Actun, Oxbel has and Dos Ojos.

Sac Actun Actun and Hu are north of Tulum, below the Ejido Jacinto Pat. Meanwhile, Oxbel is located south of Tulum, in Ejido Pino Suarez.

This network of underground tributaries adds little more than 220 miles explored and mapped, is the largest in the world and she found the oldest human remains in America.

One was found in the cave dubbed Naharon, the track was named “Woman of Naharon” , with an average age of 13,600 years, another was found Muknal and is about “The Lady of the Palms” , with 10 thousand years old.

One more was discovered in the Temple and is called “Man of the Temple” , with 10 thousand years old, according to records from the caver Jeronimo Aviles Olguin , co-author of the project “Study of human groups on the east coast preceramic Quintana Roo. “

In the cave was located at Hol Chan “Young Hol Chan” , with 10 thousand years, while in the Pit cenote other remains were found, dated to 13,000 years.

In “The Death Trap” or “Black Hole” were found other human remains.

And finally, in the cave Chan Hol II was located at “La Niña loss Hol Chan” Skeleton was a thousand 70 meters away from the entrance and 8.3 meters deep and disappeared in March, an issue that is investigated , after the head of the delegation of INAH, Adriana Velázquez Morlet , revealed the facts.

Hol Chan II is still missing

In March 2011, the INAH reported finding a skull and long bone of human remains and prehistoric megafauna, including a gomphothere in underwater cave “Black Hole” .

According to the INAH communique, this is a site whose age could be increased to 10 thousand years.

Then, archaeologist Erreguerena Pilar Luna, head of the Underwater Archaeology Branch , explained that the findings of these materials correspond to three different points within the same cave that was found submerged and separated by a distance of 20 to 30 meters.

The so-called “Black Hole” is part of a flooded cave system in the Yucatan Peninsula, which also locates the cave where they found the remains of “The Stolen Child Hol Chan” or “Hol Chan II”, a skeleton the final stage of the Ice Age , which skull and much of the body disappeared in March.