Mexican teens are sexually active early

 

Mexican children start early without protection

Mexican children start early without protection

Federal District in Mexico teens are sexually active early and, even without adequate protection: 50% of children between 12 and 17 years who maintain relationships not use contraception, while 30% of these have had a sexually transmitted disease sexual.

 This was revealed by the survey “Status of Families and Children in Mexico,” prepared by the Centre for Social Research and Public Opinion (CESOP) of the Chamber of Deputies, with rates of unwanted pregnancies and data as they 47% of them acknowledge that they have had more than two sexual partners.

The document with the results of the survey that was lifted in July 2011 was made ​​at the end of the year as an effort to learn about various aspects of the environment of children and adolescents, to provide input into the design of public policies.

That is detailed for the survey took anthropometric data of 752 infants from 8 to 15 years and there were 171,000 supplemental questionnaires among people aged 12 to 29 years. The sample design and survey was conducted by Applied Social Research. Among the findings highlighted in this exercise is the fact that 15% of those interviewed between 12 and 17 states have an active sex life and 84% began at age 15 or earlier. Of these, 32% acknowledged having first intercourse before that age. The document points out, from these figures, that “adolescents have an earlier onset and a more active sex life, but in many cases have methods adequate protection.

Also a large segment of the population did not apply safe sex practices and have suffered diseases and unwanted pregnancies. “The survey found that among sexually active adolescents, 50 percent did not use contraceptives, 25 percent do not have methods to prevent sexually transmitted diseases, 30 percent admitted to having had a sexually transmitted disease, 30 percent have been pregnant or your partner pregnant, and 5 percent have had a voluntary abortion.

Another issue of concern among adolescents is that of addiction. This survey also provides some indicators about it. CESOP The survey shows that about 31 percent of adolescents (12 to 17 years old) has consumed wine or beer, 21 percent had consumed alcoholic beverages, 18 percent have snuff consumed, 5 percent a stimulant to lose weight or gain energy and 3 percent tranquilizers without a prescription.

“This section of the population is strategic for preventing the use of these substances, as among the young population (18 to 29 years of age) the consumption and use of these substances is growing by more than two “states.

Facts about Cocaine use in the United States

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Cocaine use in the United States has an extremely broad range of characteristics. Cocaine hydrochloride was historically used for medicinal purposes. However, in the early 20th century and again in the 1970s through the 1980s it regained broad popularity for recreational use.

 The Country Profile (CP) notes that current use is largely non-medicinal, mostly in the form of cocaine hydrochloride [powder] and smokable [crack] cocaine. Hydrochloride is generally inhaled or injected. Cocaine can be smoked as crack, or hydrochloride may be mixed with tobacco or marijuana. An estimated 90% of US users inhale hydrochloride and approximately one-third smoke it.

Surveys reviewed in the CP indicate that use rose drastically in the 1970s and peaked in the middle 1980s. Use has continued to decline. The number of “occasional cocaine users” for the raid to late 1980s totaled 5.9 million and [monthly users] numbered about 2.9 minion. Users in 1992 comprised approximately 3.4 million “occasional” and 1.1 million “monthly” users. However, the total number of “frequent users” remained stable at 650 000 between 1988 and 1992. Use predominates in impoverished inner city neighbor-hoods among people between the ages of 15 and 34. Similar patterns appear for all ethnic groups although male users outnumber female users. Use declined by 63% for adolescents.

The profile reports that cocaine availability has increased and prices have substantially decreased over the last two decades. Reports indicate that high quality cocaine is now available at a lower cost than during peak use in 1985.

Consequences of Cocaine Use

 The US CP reports several areas of impact on user health. Major negative effects among heavy and chronic users were higher suicide rates, heart and lung problems and difficulty with concentration and memory. Increased sexual stimulation and sexual dysfunction were identified but research in this area is limited. The CP points out complications, caused by cocaine use during pregnancy has been exaggerated by the media. Research generally fails to support cocaine as the source of prenatal problems relative to other social factors such as poverty or poor prenatal care.

One consequence of use cited was a dramatic increase in emergency room and private physician referrals for cocaine-related health problems. This was most notable in major metropolitan areas. Most emergency room admissions were for “detoxification, unexpected drug reactions and chronic negative health effects.” Of note, 44 times the number of cocaine-related deaths occurred in 1989 (2332 reported cases) in comparison to 1975 (53 reported cases).

A social consequence reported in the CP is the connection between crime and cocaine use. It notes that two-thirds of all females and one-half of all males arrested test positive for cocaine. Increased criminal activity was noted for males with heavy use of cocaine. Crack users may also experience more violent or psychotic events.

One of the most significant health consequences posed by cocaine use is its association with increased risk for transmission of HIV/AIDS. Of concern is needle sharing among cocaine and polydrug injectors and an enhanced potential for unsafe sex, fostered by the disinhibiting effects of cocaine and by cases where sex is offered in exchange for cocaine. Harm reduction strategies, particularly needle exchanges, condom distribution and prevention campaigns, are essential to stem HIV spread through all cocaine-using populations. Cocaine use in the United States has an extremely broad range of characteristics. Cocaine hydrochloride was historically used for medicinal purposes. However, in the early 20th century and again in the 1970s through the 1980s it regained broad popularity for recreational use.

The CP notes that current use is largely non-medicinal, mostly in the form of cocaine hydrochloride “powder” and smokable “crack” cocaine. Hydrochloride is generally inhaled intranasally or injected. Smokable cocaine can be smoked as crack, or hydrochloride may be mixed with tobacco or marijuana. An estimated 90% of US users inhale hydrochloride and approximately one-third smoke it.

Surveys reviewed in the CP indicate that use rose drastically in the 1970s and peaked in the middle 1980s. Use has continued to decline. The number of “occasional cocaine users” for the raid to late 1980s totalled 5.9 million and “monthly users” numbered about 2.9 minion. Users in 1992 comprised approximately 3.4 million “occasional” and 1.1 million “monthly” users. However, the total number of “frequent users” remained stable at 650 000 between 1988 and 1992. Use predominates in impoverished inner city neighbourhoods among people between the ages of 15 and 34. Similar patterns appear for all ethnic groups although male users outnumber female users. Use declined by 63% for adolescents.

The profile reports that cocaine availability has increased and prices have substantially decreased over the last two decades. Reports indicate that high quality cocaine is now available at a lower cost than during peak use in 1985.

Responses

The CP identifies more than two million “hard-core” cocaine users in the United States. This was described as problematic since there are no standard treatment programmes for cocaine dependence. It was emphasized that intranasal users had more favourable treatment outcomes than do crack smokers. Also, females were found to demonstrate a better response to treatment than do males. Multiple drug use was common. Alcohol is the major drug used with cocaine.

The primary media responses mentioned in the profile focus on the “war on drugs” that centred on crack. However, the media offers negative, exaggerated and often racialized images of crack users. This is especially apparent for women, who are frequently portrayed as prostitutes and unfit mothers. The CP contends that media prevention campaigns are founded on stereotype and myth.

The primary political response noted in the CP is the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 which financed several programmes including research on development of medications for treatment of cocaine dependence.