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China; Ten social categories (based on differences in resource ownership):
(1) state and social management class (with organizational
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resources) is about 2.1% (1-5% in the cities, 0.5% in the urban and rural integrating administrative areas); refers to the party and government, business and social groups leading executives cadres exercising real authority and the management functions in the administrative unit including: central government ministries and municipalities practical administration of the division level and above executive-level cadres; cadres in provinces and regions practical administration of the township administrative section level and above, this category is currently account for the proportion of about 2.1% in the social class structure.
(2) managerial personnel (with cultural resources or organizational resources), 1.5% (up to 9% in some cities); refers to the senior and middle management staff in the state-owned, collectives, private and joint ventures, wholly foreign-owned large and medium enterprise, this category is accounting for the proportion of about 1.5% currently in the social class structure.
(3) private entrepreneurs (with economic resources), 0.6% (private sector takes up to 3% in developed regions, 0.3%in less developed areas); the persons making profit with a certain number of private ownership of capital or investment in fixed assets, in accordance with existing policies and regulations, those include private enterprises with more than 8 employees. This category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 0.6% in the social class structure.
(4) professional and technical staff levels (with cultural resources), 5.1% (10-20% in large cities, 1.5-3% in urban fringe areas); refers to the various economic agencies (including state organs, party and mass organizations, national enterprises, collective enterprises, and various non-state, or public ownership enterprises) specializes in a variety of professional works, scientific and technical staff, this category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 5.1% in the social class structure.
(5) the staff levels (with minor cultural resources and organizational resources), 4.8% (10-15% in urban area, 2-6% in urban fringe areas); refers to full-time office staff assisting the department in dealing with day to day administrative affairs, mainly the low-level clerical staff in party and government organs in the civil service, enterprises of various ownership and mainly of primary non-professional management. This category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 4.8% in the social class structure.
(6) individual businesses (with minor economic resources), 4.2% (the actual number is more than the registered number); the persons with private ownership of small amount of capital (including property) involving in production, circulation, services and other business activities or financial bond market to make a living. Such as individual business owners or micro business (owners have sufficient capital to hire labor but also directly involved in labor and production), self-employed business people or self-employed workers (with sufficient capital to open their own business but do not employ other workers), and small shareholders, minority shareholders, owner of small rental housing, etc., this category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 4.2% in the social class structure.
(7) business services staff levels (with a small amount of the three resources), 12%; refers to the non-professional, non-manual and manual staff in the commercial and service sectors, this category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 12% in the social class structure.
(8) industrial workers (with a small amount of three resources), 22.6% (of which 30% of migrant workers); refers to the physical, semi-manual production workers, construction workers and related personnel in the secondary industry, this category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 22.6%in the social class structure.
(9) the peasant (with a small amount of three resources), (44% in 1999); one of the largest category in China, refers to farmers with the collectively owned farmland contracted to agriculture (forestry, animal husbandry and fishery) industry as the sole or main occupation, and agriculture (forestry, animal husbandry and fishery) industry as the sole source of income or principal source of income, this category accounts for about 44% of China’s total working population now.
(10) Urban and rural jobless, unemployed, semi-unemployed category (with no resources), 3.1%. refers to the working age population with no-regular employment (excluding students), this category is currently accounting for the proportion of about 3.1% in the social class structure.
Five socio-economic classes
(Classified according to family income or monthly income per capita)
(1) The upper social strata: high-level leading cadres, big business executives, senior professionals and large private entrepreneurs;
(2) Upper-middle-level cadres, middle managers of large enterprises, SMEs managers, mid-level professional and technical personnel and medium business owners;
(3) Middle-middle class: junior professionals, small business owners, officers, individual businesses, senior technicians, large agricultural operations;
(4) Lower class: individual service providers, workers, peasants;
(5) Bottom class: workers living in poverty and lack of job security, peasants and jobless, unemployed, underemployed workers